Two factors led to the production of aboriginal art as a saleable commodity rather than for community or ceremonial purposes: the widespread seizure of First Nations lands and severe reduction in hunting and farming capability, and the late 19th century Arts and Crafts Movement. That movement was a reaction against industrialization and mass-produced “art.” Native art was valued (and romanticized) by non-native patrons as something authentic and sharing in the anti-modernist sentiment. The same assimilationist policies that threatened their cultural survival led to the establishment of “Indian” schools, such as the Studio School in Santa Fe, which taught native artists western materials, styles, and techniques. These factors led in the mid- to late-20th century for the development of a full-scale emergence of a native tradition in contemporary art.
The general consciousness of the importance of self-determination that characterized the 1960s may have helped lead to the establishment of the
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