Monday, October 16, 2017

Rich History


I just returned from vacay, spending my last day in Dublin after leaving Switzerland. We went to the National Museum of Ireland, where we saw tons of beautifully executed golden objects that have been found in bogs over the years. These ancient objects are dated to the first 1000 years BCE, giving an image of a culture with resplendent metalworking and particularly fine gold work. The sophistication of these early Celtic / Viking cultures (pre-Roman and certainly pre-Christian) surprised me. How many cultures have you not thought about in the last, say, 24 hours? How about the rich cultural history of Java, Indonesia?

Java, Indonesia, Prambanan Plain, near Yogyakarta, Plaosan temple complex, view across Plaosan Lor, 830–850 CE. Image © 2017 Davis Art Images. (8S-10183)

This beautiful, sculptural temple complex is located in south-central Java. It was built during the rule of the Medang (or Mataram) Kingdom, which flourished, along with many other dominating kingdoms in Indonesia, between the 700s and the 900s CE. The Medan Kingdom was the ruling entity when the Great Stupa at Borobudur was built.

It is generally believed that the earliest inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago were of Indian or Burmese origin. Later migrants known as Malays came from Southern China and Indochina at around 3000 BCE. Hinduism was introduced from India through trade during the first 100 years CE. Hindu kingdoms were established in Kalimantan, Sumatra, and Java between the 400s and the 1200s, some of which had also absorbed Buddhist influences.

The Medang, a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom, evolved at the same time as the massive Srivijaya Empire in Sumatra and western Java. Interestingly, although few inscriptions from either culture survive, they appear to have been similar in the fluid manner in which they ruled, with kings overseeing regional overlords who were more or less autonomous. Similarly, both the Medang and Srivijaya seem to have established what could be considered urban centers.

Javanese architecture began under Hindu influence. There was a surge of Buddhism from about 750 to 850 (as evidenced by the monumental Stupa in Borobudur), followed by a second flourishing of Hindu architecture that lasted from the late 800s until the 1300s, with the coming of Islam. The Plaosan temple complex is a large group of Buddhist temples. Plaosan Lor (North Plaosan Temple) was dedicated to the Dhyani Buddha, the five celestial Buddhas believed to have existed since the beginning of time. This is one of two temples in the center of the complex. It was built on a 2 foot (60 cm) high base, and, like the Great Stupa at Borodubur, contains a grouping of multiple towers at the top, a symbol of the world mountain, Mount Meru.

Srivijaya Kingdom (flourished 600s to 1200s CE, Java), Woman Holding a Lotus, architectural fragment, chalk stone, 18" x 10" x 4 ½" (45.7 x 25.4 x 11.4 cm). © 2017 Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY. (AK-1240)

This female figure may have been a celestial woman or deity from the decoration of a temple. In style, it is very similar to the female figures depicted on the exterior of the Great Stupa of Borobudur, in the Medang Kingdom. This indicates the vast influence the Indian sculptural style had as Hinduism and Buddhist spread throughout Southeast Asia.

The Sryivijaya Kingdom was Hindu-Buddhist, and was ruled by Tamils centered in Palembang, Sumatra. After the Funan culture (centered on mainland in Cambodia) had been defeated in the region, the Srivijaya dynasty established itself around the late 500s CE, and thrived between the 700s and 1200s CE. The kingdom enriched itself by controlling the sea trade in the region, particularly that to India and China. The kingdom established control over Sumatra, western Java, and much of the Malay peninsula. Like the Medang kingdom, the Srivijaya rulers established vast Buddhist temple complexes that were famous for their exterior sculptural decoration.

Prambanan, Java, Pawon Temple, ca. 778–800s CE. Image © 2017 Davis Art Images. (8S-10451)

Pawon Temple is one of three Mahayana Buddhist temples built during the Sailendra Dynasty of the Medang Kingdom. The name Pawon derives from the word for “kitchen” in the Javanese language, which in turn comes from the root word for ashes or dust. It is theorized that the term pertained to the fact that the temple may have contained the cremated ashes of a king. It is on a northeast-southwest axis between the temples of Mendut and Borobudur. The multiple towers and high platform are similar in style to the other two temples.

Various scholars have proposed the origins of the Sailendra to eastern India, Cambodia, and Sumatra. Early inscriptions mentioning the dynasty name date to 778 CE in the Kedu Plain in central Java. The Sailendra rulers had good relations with the Srivijaya Empire in Sumatra. It existed next to the Sanjaya dynasty in Java, and around ca. 850 CE it seems to have been subsumed by the Sanjaya. The next mention of the Sailendra was as rulers in Sumatra associated with the Srivijaya. An Indian invasion by Chola rulers in 1025 conquered Sailendra territories in Sumatra and seems to have ended their rule there.

Correlations to Davis programs: A Global Pursuit: 8.5; The Visual Experience: 13.3; Discovering Art History 4E: 4.5

Monday, October 2, 2017

Workus Interruptus (Vacation)


Even though I’m half Swiss, I’m not really a Swissaholic. I just happen to see a lot of art that happens to be from Switzerland that also happens to be worth sharing. I’m going on vacay and thought I’d leave you with a Swiss kiss of art.

Switzerland, Wardrobe from Toggenburg, Sankt Gallen, 1827. Painted wood, 69 3/4" x 56 ½" x 26 ½" (177.2 x 143.5 x 67.3). © 2017 Philadelphia Museum of Art. (PMA-6672)

When I was little my mother dragged me and my brother to lots of castles. Some of the ones in larger cities would inevitably have at least one room that was furnished in the Rococo style, which was the favored style by the fyni Lüt. This is what my grandmother called the landed gentry, who were governors of areas of cantons, basically a landed upper class. Since Switzerland had no royal court or princely courts or dukedoms, the upper classes in many parts of Switzerland aped French fashions. That lasted until the first Napoleon forced thousands of Swiss men in on his dumb Grand Armée campaign to invade Russia.

That was in central and western Switzerland. In the far eastern part of Switzerland—Ostschwyz, as we say—there may have been French tastes among the elite, but they were executed in the form of painted furniture, rather than finely carved and gilt furniture like French Rococo. The designer of this armoire was definitely into the Rococo arabesques (rocaille), but the little landscape scenes painted in the roundels are straight out of the Danube painting school going back to the 1500s. The roundels may be attempts at Chinoiserie

Toggenburg, now part of the canton of Sankt Gallen, was part of the Protestant-Catholic strife in the early 1700s. It was finally united with Sankt Gallen in 1803 when the Federal Republic was established. 

Max Bill (1908–1994 Switzerland), Striving Forces of a Sphere, 1966–1967. Granite, 23 ½" x 35 ½" x 23 ½" (59.7 x 90.2 x 59.7 cm). Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY. © 2017 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. (AK-1007bfars)

Like many other Swiss artists in the first half of the 1900s, Max Bill, born in Winterthur, studied at the Bauhaus in Dessau under Josef Albers (1888–1976) from 1927 to 1929. He is probably one of the most ardent theorists of the Concrete Art aesthetic. The term “concrete” art was coined in 1930 by de Stijl artist Theo van Doesburg (1883–1931) to reference pure abstraction. De Stijl artists reduced art to simple geometric shapes. They felt that the term abstraction implied reduction from a natural form instead of fundamental forms divorced from all reference to the natural world.

Bill initially exhibited with the French abstraction group Abstraction-Création, and organized Concrete Art exhibits in the 1930s. He revived the importance of the aesthetic after World War II (1939–1945). Bill firmly believed that art always had had a mathematical origin, whether conscious or unconscious on the artist’s part. In sculpture, the forms that intrigued Bill the most were the spiral and the sphere. Works such as Striving Forces of a Sphere are Bill’s idea of an endlessly transforming shape that exudes the qualities of rationalism, clarity, and harmony. Although he is renowned as a graphic designer, I really like Bill’s sculptures the best.

John Armleder (born 1948, Switzerland), Untitled from the Supernova portfolio, 2003. Lithograph on paper, 22" x 30" (55.9 x 76.2 cm). Photo © 2017 The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Art © 2017 John Armleder. (MOMA-P3624)

The question with contemporary artists is no longer “What is Art?” as it was in the early 1900s with Dada and Surrealist artists. Now it is the concern with how an artist’s ideas are reflected in the creative process. Which is more important, the idea or the result of the idea? The Conceptual Art movement that began in the 1960s immersed itself with that question, as did the loose international group of performance and visual artists called Fluxus. They called for the overturning of traditional perceptions of physical art in favor of both mental and visual perceptions.

John Armleder was at one time associated with Fluxus. Born in Geneva, where he studied art at the School of Fine Arts, Armleder is a painter, sculptor, performance artist, and installation artist. The Fluxus movement rejected the idea of “star artists” after the sensation caused by Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art. That sentiment was revived during the greed-fueled, entrepreneurial art scene of the 1980s. Armleder’s body of work is concerned with anti-establishment and anti-commercialist works. In 1969, with other Geneva artists, Armleder co-founded Groupe Ecart, a performance and installation vehicle that was concerned with abandoning traditional hierarchies of art media.

The group of prints in Armleder’s Supernova portfolio embraces the idea of anti-star power by mimicking a variety of divergent styles from Abstract Expressionism to Op Art in only a vague nod to the strict canons of those movements. Armleder invites the exhibiting space to hang these 20 prints in any combination or alone, vertically, horizontally or diagonally. This underscores Armleder’s belief that the art has a life of its own, independent of the artist and certainly independent of commission-hungry sales galleries.

Monday, September 25, 2017

Color for the End of September


With all the storms this month, what better way to end September than with a storm of color? And what better way to end with color than to show you the work of an artist who is 1) committed to his modernist vision in painting, and 2) committed to extending an unpretentious appreciation of modernism to whomever wants to share it with him. I wish every town had an artist like Charles Clough with his open studio/participatory events. 
 
Charles Clough (born 1951, US), Cruor, 1993. Enamel on Masonite, 24" x 32" (61 x 81.3 cm). Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY. © 2017 Charles Clough. (AK-2523)

I just can’t stop looking at these paintings by Buffalo artist Charles Clough. As early as the late 1970s, he was producing paintings that have been celebrations of color and gesture, and I absolutely love them. I am venturing a guess that he decided on abstraction rather than narrative content around 1980, based on the moment he writes about in his autobiography, Pepfog Cluff (2007). In his book, he states that he wanted to paint for process’s sake like Jackson Pollock (1912–1956). I can totally see a Pollock aesthetic in his work, although uniquely Clough.

What interests me even more is that Clough’s work was featured in an exhibition called The Pictures Generation in 2009 at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. It ostensibly featured artists who were involved with appropriated imagery like Sherrie Levine, Robert Longo, Jack Goldstein, and Cindy Sherman, but also, I guess, included artists who appropriated processes in abstraction. The exhibition included artists who founded the Hallwalls Contemporary Art Center exhibits in Buffalo in the 1970s, which Clough co-founded with Robert Longo and Cindy Sherman in 1974.

Clough was born and raised in Buffalo, studied at Pratt Institute in Brooklyn (1965–1970) and Ontario College of Art (1971–1972). He also studied at the University of Buffalo Center for Media Studies (1973–1974) and New York University Information Technologies Institute (1997–1998). He has taught at Columbia University and the Rhode Island Institute of Design. He decided to devote himself to being an artist in 1971. I cannot say enough about how much I admire the diversity of this artist and his body of work. I admire him even more for his open studios called Clufffalo in East Aurora, NY, where total strangers are invited to lend their efforts to collaborative paintings. After you read about Clufffalo, you’ll understand why I said I wish there were artists like Clough in every town!

More works by this fabulous painter:

Charles Clough (born 1951, US), Universal Soul Doll Guts, 1979. Enamel and paper collage on paper, 19 3/4" x 13 13/16" (50.2 x 35.2 cm). Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY. © 2017 Charles Clough. (AK-350)
Charles Clough (born 1951, US), August Sixteenth, 1990. Enamel on board,  16 1/2" x 12 1/4" (41.9 x 31.1 cm). Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY. © 2017 Charles Clough. (AK-2524)

Monday, September 18, 2017

The Iconoclast (?)


Zhan Wang (born 1962, China), Urban Landscape Buffalo, 2005–2010. Stainless steel pots, pans and kitchen utensils, 67 ½" x 197" x 393 5/8" (171.5 x 500.4 x 999.8 cm). Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York. © 2017 Zhan Wang. (AK-2840)

It would probably take me forever to be able to say that I had “seen it all” in the world of art. You know the old expression, “just when you thought you’d seen it all,” seems sort of hollow to an art-hungry art historian. Zhan Wang’s installation just knocked my socks off. It’s so amazing and awesome, and yet it’s not the dominant type of his body of work (or “oeuvre”).

I’m not quite sure that I have ever witnessed an installation that incorporated solely kitchenware to get the subject across. But, what I am sure of is that Zhan’s interpretation of Buffalo, NY (and Fort Erie across the Niagara River) is brilliant! I deluded myself into believing I had pegged Niagara Square in the close-up below, but I’m not staking my art historian badge on it. The installation is so wonderfully complex, and the urban forms that Zhan has emulated in a variety of utensils—I especially like the expressway formed by end-to-end ladles—are absolutely fascinating.

In studying centuries-old traditions of Chinese landscape painting, you learn that one of the keys to a successful landscapeestablished during the Song Dynasty (960–1279/1280)—is that the painting invites the viewer to take a stroll in the land depicted. Well, that certainly happens for me when I look at this installation by Zhan. I want to take a stroll in these shiny streets!

The contrast of old and new, natural and man-made forms is one of the driving forces behind the sculpture of Zhan Wang. Born in Beijing, he learned landscape brush painting at an early age from his grandfather and an uncle, who taught him sketching. He studied sculpture at the China Central Academy of Fine Arts, where he became part of the 85 New Wave movement (1985–1989). This movement was a reaction against social realism espoused by the Communists, and incorporated a wide variety of Western-inspired contemporary art, ranging from traditional imagery of rural Chinese life to groups that espoused Zen-Dada conceptualism. It inspired the development of 79 independent avant-garde artist groups all over China.

Some of Zhan’s most recognizable works are his castings in stainless steel, updating the idea of eroded “scholar’s rocks,” often seen in Chinese painting. This series is entitled Artificial Rock, and like Zhan’s Buffalo installation, Zhan confounds the viewer by translating a traditional subject into a material that is completely opposite reality. Just as scholars believe scholar’s rocks contain the vital energy called qi, there is a definite vitality in Zhan’s pristine arrangement of pots and pans as an American city. I believe the crinkly form in the background of Buffalo is one of Zhan’s Scholar’s Rocks.

Many of the galleries representing Zhan call him an “iconoclast.” Most people would interpret that as someone who objects to images of sacred characters. But I think it also deals with conceptualism, where Zhan as an artist overturns traditionally held beliefs about art forms and subject matter.

Zhan Wang (born 1962, China), Urban Landscape Buffalo, 2005–2010. Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY. © 2017 Zhan Wang. (AK-2842)

Correlations to Davis Programs: A Community Connection: 9.5; A Personal Journey: 9.6; A Global Pursuit: 9.5; Beginning Sculpture: 7: Discovering Art History: 17.5 

Saturday, September 9, 2017

An Art Ode to Labor Day Week, part 5

Labor Day Week continues with the work of Eldzier Cortor.

Eldzier Cortor (1916–2015, US), Coming Home from Work, 1938 / 1943. Black ink on paper with pink fibers, 20 7/16" x 17 11/16" (52 x 45 cm). Art Institute of Chicago. © 2017 Estate of Eldzier Cortor / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. (AIC-285corars)


I’m pretty certain that all of us have felt like this guy looks at one time or another after a long, hard day at work. What I’d like to show with this artist—through his image of a hard-working African American man—is a facet of Eldzier Cortor’s art of which many people are not aware. Cortor is mostly represented in books about African American artists for his depictions of elongated, beautiful African American women, often in drab surroundings. However, a larger portion of his oeuvre of paintings and prints was a document of everyday life among African Americans. I’m pretty fond of his work because he developed as an artist in Chicago, my hometown.

Although the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and 1930s has gotten far more attention as the premier African American artistic and cultural movement of the 1900s, Chicago, too, had a dynamic aesthetic movement that included an influential renaissance in art, dance, and, especially, jazz music. By 1960 (considered the last year of the second wave of the Great Migration), the African American population in the city had increased from almost 300,000 to 813,000.

Already in the 1930s African American artists such as Margaret Burroughs (1917–2010) and Charles White (1918–1979) had helped form a vibrant community of exhibiting African American artists, quite of few of them educated at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. Many of these artists established community groups of Chicago’s great South Side: The Art Craft Guild (1932), which taught lessons from the SAIC, and the South Side Community Arts Center, which had the support of the Federal Arts Project during the Depression (1929–1940).

Eldzier Cortor, born in Virginia, was a painter and printmaker who studied painting and drawing at the School of the Art Institute. He joined the easel painting section of the Federal Arts Project in 1938, and spent five years painting social realist murals and scenes of Chicago’s South Side neighborhoods. In 1946, he was awarded a scholarship to study art and culture on the islands off of South Carolina and Georgia. There, the strength and nobility of the women he met there inspired his famous series of African American women in interiors.

Cortor was the first African American artist to use the beauty of African American women as a primary theme. He first received recognition when his painting Southern Gate (1942–1943)now at the Smithsonian American Art Museumwas featured in Life magazine in 1946. Another fellowship in 1949 enabled him to study art further in Cuba, Haiti, and Jamaica. His stay in Jamaica inspired a series of non-objective and abstract prints that reflected political violence in Haiti.

Correlations with Davis Programs: A Personal Journey: 2.3; Exploring Visual Design: 12; Discovering Art History 4E: 15.4

Friday, September 8, 2017

An Art Ode to Labor Day Week, part 4

Labor Day Week continues with rural life in late-1800s England.

Peter Henry Emerson (1856–1936, Britain), Women Working Reeds, from the series Pictures of East Anglian Life, 1888. Photogravure on paper, 8 ½" x 11 5/16" (21.7 x 28.7 cm). Image © 2017 Davis Art Images. (8S-20612)

We should take a “time out” in the corner if we ever complain about what we have to wear to work, whether it’s a uniform, suit, or office casual. Can you imagine working outside doing physical labor in a corset, petticoats, full skirt, apron, and hat???? These women are engaged in “osier peeling,” stripping off the outside of hollow, jointed tall grass called reeds. The resulting stripped reeds would then be made into baskets, hats, etc. Reeds in Britain must continue to have a lot of uses because they are still harvested every year in Norfolk from December through April. I assume, though, that a lot of the work is automated by now.

Toward the end of the 1880s in England, banal, posed genre subjects flooded the market. Instead of direct imagery, traditionally considered the strength of the medium, these photographs were little more than “cut and paste” handwork. Photographers would take as many as five negatives of staged tableaus, arrange them on one plate, and print them together as one. Composite printing could produce ghostly secondary images that were meant to represent memories, ghosts, or visions to the higher contrast primary scene.

Some photographers, such as Peter H. Emerson, reacted against reducing photography to the sentimental and artificial. Emerson introduced the theory of Naturalism. He believed that the photographer should photograph natural settings, not posed studio shots. He also believed in having the central subject in sharp focus and the surrounding background slightly out of focus, for he believed that that was the way the human eye sees.

Emerson studied medicine and science in college. He bought his first camera in 1882 and studied the medium with the typical thoroughness of a scientist. He first exhibited his photographs, winning many prizes, in 1885. He was an avid lecturer and writer on his aesthetic theory of Naturalism. Like many of the art photographers, he believed that photography could be an art in its own right.

In 1888, he began to document the rural life of East Anglia. Many indigenous customs and traditions were fast disappearing, and Emerson saw in them an inherent nobility, much like Realist painters. The gravure print process was a perfect medium for capturing the misty atmosphere of that region of England. This photograph is a quintessential example of his theories.

Emerson explained his theories in the book Naturalistic Photography published in 1889. His ideas about using natural settings and unposed subjects as art photography influenced Pictorialism in the U.S. at the turn of the 20th century, when art photography had its last peak of popularity. 

Check back tomorrow for a bonus Saturday post to wrap up the Labor Day Week series.

Correlations to Davis programs: Focus on Photography 1E: 2, 3; Focus on Photography 2E: 4

Thursday, September 7, 2017

An Art Ode to Labor Day Week, part 3

Labor Day Week continues with this album leaf depicting blacksmiths at work in Korea.

Kim Deuk-sin (1754–1822, Korea), Blacksmiths, leaf from an album of genre scenes. Ink and colors on paper. Gan-song Art Museum, Seoul, South Korea. Image © 2017 Davis Art Images. (8S-26191)

I often marvel at how hard producers of the TV show M*A*S*H tried to faithfully depict everyday life in Korea. Of course, looking at this scene from the turn of the 1800s is an unfair comparison to 1950s Korea, but it does make me want to go home and watch some M*A*S*H shows! When one sees depictions of such mundane activities in Chinese and Japanese art of the same period, they are often done with “humor.” In other words, those scenes have an element of mockery to them, particularly works by artists such as Hokusai (1760–1849). Kim Deuk-sin actually gives his scenes a sense of dignity, rather than send-up.

Throughout the centuries, Chinese art influenced Korean artists, particularly painting and ceramics. While landscape painting developed with a strong Chinese style in the Song Dynasty mode, indigenous styles appeared in figurative work, particularly genre scenes. The Joseon Dynasty is considered to be the period when Korean painting reached its maturity.

Koreans suffered greatly during the second half of the Joseon Dynasty (ca. 1590 onwards), first from Japanese invasion, then at the hands of the Chinese armies that came to Korea’s aid, only to stay to pillage. By the 1700s, peace with China and Tokugawa Japanese isolation brought somewhat better conditions. Korea’s greater degree of independence is reflected in the subtle elements of indigenous stylistic variations seen in paintings of this time. Painting was divided into two "schools": 1) landscape painting in the Chinese style and official portraiture; and 2) scenes of everyday Korean life.

Kim Deuk-sin and his brother Kim Sok-sin were leading genre painters of the late Joseon period. The brothers were sons of a court painter Kim Eungri. They became members of the royal guild of painters. That notwithstanding, they were pioneers and advocates of the "true view painting" style. The style, known as pungsokhwa, is represented in far more of Kim’s works, particularly albums, than official portraiture.

 
Correlations to Davis programs: A Personal Journey: 2.3, 2.4; The Visual Experience: 13.6