Friday, November 20, 2015

More Wearable Art

You may remember that I introduced you to the fiber art of Korean Jeung Hwa-Park, whose work is fabulous, back in 2009. Now I’ve discovered this wonderful Japanese artist who bowls me over by the beauty of her textile designs just the same! Reiko Sudo is my favorite artist of the week. The complexity of her aesthetic vision, design, and production processes is truly inspiring. As I’ve said before (I think I did), if I wasn’t a painter I’d want to be a ceramic artist, and if I wasn’t a ceramic artist, I would want to design and make fabulous textiles.

Reiko Sudo (born 1953, Japan), Jelly-Fish Fabric, ca. 1994. Polyester, 20'9" (overall) x 2'8" (637.5 overall x 86.4 cm). Image © The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Work © 2015 Reiko Sudo. (MOMA-D0609) 
Like many of Sudo’s fabrics of polyester, the Jelly-Fish pattern textiles relies on the technique of scrunching and binding with thread. The fabric is dyed and then the folds are heat-set.

Reiko Sudo just does the neatest things with fabric. Sudo originally wanted to become a designer of kimonos, but failed the entrance exam. She went on to study textile design at Musashino Art University. In 1984 she and Jun’ichi Arai (born 1932) started NUNO Corporation, a company that produces textiles with an emphasis on unusual combinations of materials and techniques. The company was founded in order to produce textiles with traditional Japanese aesthetics in an eco-friendly manner. In 1987 she took over full leadership of the NUNO design team.

Sudo’s designs combine technology/industry and artistry. She gains influence for the development of new techniques from articles on Japanese industrial development. The preferred materials at NUNO are silk, polyester, cotton, nylon tape, and hand-made paper. One of Sudo’s earliest personal experiments in novel materials was the manipulation of plastic. In an effort to reduce the company’s ecological footprint, NUNO always uses leftover scraps of materials in unusual combinations. Technologies used by NUNO adapted from Japan’s traditional “crafts” culture include salt shrinking, mud-dyeing, rust-dyeing, caustic burning, fatiguing by hand, chemicals or machine, and graffiti decoration.

NUNO means “cloth” in Japanese. The materials produced by Sudo and NUNO are not mass-produced, but combine hand-manipulation with industrial milling that keeps costs low. The fabrics can serve a variety of uses, from clothing to interior design. 

Mica Fabric, ca. 1994–1995. Polyester, 19’'7" (overall x 2'9" (600.1 overall x 83.8 cm). Image © The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Work © 2015 Reiko Sudo. (MOMA-D0617)
Sudo designed the Mica pattern in 1995. The semi-transparent and plain-woven polyster is wrapped into a tight ball. Heat-setting the materials results in randomly pleated surface. This is a perfect example of the combination of industrial woven fabric manipulated by hand. 

Origami Pleats Scarf, 1997. Polyester, 17 1/4" x 59" (43.8 x 149.9 cm). Image © The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Work © 2015 Reiko Sudo. (MOMA-D1251)

The Origami Pleats textiles technique was developed by Mizue Okada. 100 percent polyester organza was folded repeatedly at sharp angles and then permanently heat-pressed. Color was added to suggest depth. 

Kinugasa Mushroom, 2007. Cotton and rayon, 130'4" overall x 3'3" (614.7 overall x 101.6 cm). Image © The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Work © 2015 Reiko Sudo. (MOMA-D1317)
This lacy, web-like fabric imitates the lacy veil on the Japanese kinugasa mushroom. It is made with a special steering wheel embroidery machine, where most functions are controlled by the feet allowing the operator to manipulate the needle to produce the repeated circular perforations. 

Baby Hairs, 2007. Cotton and saran (strontium aluminate-impregnated nylon), 20'9" overall x 2'8" (632.5 overall x 86 cm). Photo © The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Work © 2015 Reiko Sudo. (MOMA-D1315)
I’m not sure how this material is produced. The saran has a phosphorescent quality that can be seen in close-up.

To see more fabulous fabrics designed by Reiko Sudo and NUNO, visit their website: They have nice close-up views of some of their textiles.

Correlations to Davis Programs: Explorations in Art Grade 2: 6.36; Explorations in Art Grade 3: 6.31; Explorations in Art Grade 4: 5.27; Explorations in Art Grade 5: 2.10; Explorations in Art Grade 6: 4.23-24; A Community Connection: 5.2; A Personal Journey: 3.1, 3.4; A Global Pursuit: 7.5; Exploring Visual Design: 6, 11; The Visual Experience: 10.8, 13.5; Discovering Art History: 2.2, 4.4

Friday, November 13, 2015

Utilitarian Object or Sculpture?

First of all, let me clarify the use of “utilitarian” or “decorative arts.” These are unfortunately terms art historians are stuck with from the 1800s art history gods in Western Europe. I personally look at a beautifully presented meal as the work of an artist, so, let’s go from there. Anyway, sometimes, when entering new images into our digital collection, I really have to stop and think about how to categorize an object. Last week’s blog that showed furniture in which the sculptural element almost overruled the utilitarian aspect of the piece got me thinking (oh-oh). Now, I wouldn’t normally consider, say, a vacuum cleaner fine art. It seems, though, in the 21st century, that designers of utilitarian objects have that in mind for a whole variety of products. And then, when one thinks about it (oh-oh), one realizes that this has always been the impulse of designers/artists! Here are some examples I picked to give you a moment to mull over my question: Is it utilitarian or sculpture, or both?

Ancient Egypt, Head of the Coffin of Horankh, ca. 700 BCE. Gessoed and painted wood, with obsidian, calcite and bronze inlay, near life-sized.  © Dallas Museum of Art. (DMA-59A)
Nearly all of the arts in ancient Egypt had some relation to their religion and their belief in the afterlife being a continuation of earthly life. To that end, their tombs were filled with objects that contained likenesses of themselves, many meant to capture the ka after it left the mummified body if it got temporarily lost on its way to the afterlife. Before the Ptolemaic period, it was customary for wealthy Egyptians to have elaborate carved, painted, and inlaid coffins. Yes, a coffin is a utilitarian object, I guess (though you only use it once), but, I don’t have the “coffin” category of decorative arts. So, this beautifully carved and painted, idealized coffin lid goes under “sculpture.”

Ancient Peru, Moche Culture, Effigy vessel, 400-600 CE. Painted earthenware, 12 15/16" x 8 1/4" x 7" (33 x 21 x 18 cm). © Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. (MFH-628)
While the Moche culture of Peru also believed in an afterlife as a richer version of earthly life, the purpose of the many types of effigy vessels (animal, deity, human head) is still not clear to scholars. Many have been found in burials, and it is thought that is because they were considered objects of status. This is perhaps borne out by the fact that equally large numbers of effigy vessels have been excavated from family compounds. I know it is thought that these vessels were mold made, but, I saw dozens of these portrait jars in April in an exhibition on the Moche, and there were no two alike. Some of them are compellingly realistic, even down to showing faces that had been disfigured by the sandfly-borne, flesh-eating disease leishmaniasis. I categorize these as “ceramics,” but in my mind this genre of object is sculpture!

France, Potpourri Vase, ca. 1890, copy of 1757 original from Sèvres Porcelain Factory. Hard-paste porcelain, enamel painted and gilt, 15" x 14 1/4" x 9" (38.1 x 36.2 x 22.9 cm). © Philadelphia Museum of Art. (PMA-1120)
Why would anyone copy an example of overly decorated froufrou from the Rococo period (ca. 1700-1730s)? It just conjures up images of conspicuous consumption, noblesse oblige, and, dare I say it, a lack of taste? But, the Rococo Revival was big from the mid-1800s to the 1890s, so here we have this gem. It’s ironic that a style that really only flourished after the death of Louix XIV (1715) to around the time of the discovery of the ruins of Pompeii (1748) was so lavishly revived in the mid-1800s! I appreciate the use of this genre of vase, a step up from the bowl of potpourri on a coffee table. But subtlety is not the hallmark of the Rococo style. I stuck this in because so many Rococo objects were so over the top in three-dimensional form (arabesques, volutes, etc) that they could easily stand on the mantle as an odd knick knack that needs constant dusting. That said, I still categorize this as “ceramic.”  

Baule People, Ivory Coast, Leopard Stool (royal seat), from Toumodi, 1900s. Painted wood, 17 11/16" x 8 5/8" x 33" (45 x 22 x 84 cm). © Philadelphia Museum of Art. (PMA-2721)
The leopard is a symbol of ruling status throughout the arts of sub-Saharan African cultures. I know that royal seats such as this were reserved for one person, and it wasn’t exactly a chair in the living room to sit on and watch TV. However, did you ever look at a piece of furniture and think it’s just too beautiful to be actually used? Additionally, considering the reserved purpose of this seat, we can see why such special attention is paid to its form. The jaguar with prey in its mouth is an obvious symbol of the ruler’s power over detractors. On top of the leopard is an akan stool that is typical status symbol of rulers of the Asante of neighboring Ghana. The combination of these two symbols is powerful, so, even though I do catalog this as “furniture” (only because of its title), once again, in my mind I’m thinking “sculpture!”

Iatmul People, Papua New Guinea, Suspension Hook, from Sepik River area, Village of Aibom, 1900s. Wood, fiber, shell and pigment, 35 15/16" x 10 15/16" x 6" (91.44 x 27.9 x 15.2 cm). © MFA, Boston. (MFAB-738)

In many Oceanic cultures, sculpture, painting, or carving adorns almost every object of everyday and ritual life. By decorating all objects in their lives, the people of these cultures believe that they can bring the world of the spirits into active participation in everyday life. Like many of the other peoples of the Sepik River region, the Iatmul carve (often elaborate) basket hooks, also called suspension hooks. Figurative hooks suspended from the rafters of ordinary dwellings and lavishly decorated men's cult houses have multiple purposes and meanings. Ordinarily, they were used to hang bags and vessels of food out of reach of dogs, children, etc. More elaborate examples, such as this impressive piece, had religious significance and served to suspend skull trophies. The human forms on the upright shanks may represent ancestors and refer to family and clan myths, assuring the welfare of their community. Since I don’t have a “hook” designation in my database, I’m calling this “sculpture!” It’s also a nice example of the painting style.

Alexander Calder (1898–1976, US), Comb,  before 1943. Hammered brass, 6 1/2" x 3 13/16" x 3/4" (16.5 x 9.8 x 1.9 cm). The Museum of Modern Art, New York. © 2015 Calder Foundation, New York / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. (MOMA-D0771caars)
Everyone knows that Calder was a pioneer of kinetic sculpture in his mobiles and stabiles. Many probably also know that he also designed ceramic tile murals, tapestries, carpets, and explored painting. And I’m pretty sure not everyone knows that he designed jewelry as well. If I still had long hair, I’d love to wear this exquisite comb. It’s so modern, timeless, and yet it puts one in mind of the ancient Aegean cultures. I do catalog this as “jewelry,” but it sure makes a beautiful little sculptural form. 

Philippe Starck (born 1949, France), Walter Wayle Wall Clock, 1989. Thermoplastic resin, 10" x 10" x 2" (25.4 x 25.4 x 5.1 cm). The Museum of Modern Art, New York. © 2015 Philippe Starck. (MOMA-D0592)

I’m not sure how many wonderful historical sources Starck has used in his many fabulous designs. All I know is that sitting at the bar in the Royalton Hotel in New York is like being in a cross between a 1930s film-noir and the bar scene from a Star Wars movie. His designs for everyday objects are so spectacular and inventive, it’s hard to decide which genre I like the best, though, I must say, this clock design is right up at the top of my list. I like Starck’s designs for home objects because he really brings a sculptural aesthetic into utilitarian design. This clock is such an interesting idea. For one thing I like the flipper hands, and the free-form lack of face or numbers flies in the face of the conventional idea of a clock being some strict regulating instrument. If I didn’t know it was a clock, I might think “sculpture” in the spirit of the biomorphic forms of Jean Arp (1886–1966). 

Okayama Sinya (born 1941, Japan), Kotobuki Shelves, 1989. Lacquered wood, 74 3/8" x 35 3/8" x 15 3/4" (189 x 90 x 40 cm). Philadelphia Museum of Art. © 2015 Okayama Sinya. (PMA-2659)
Okayama is one of the pioneers of postmodern aesthetic in Japanese design, starting in the late 1970s. After working in the design department of a department store chain, he produced the first furniture and lighting fixtures under his own name in 1981. Many of Okayama’s designs suggest the object, object type, or word for which they are named. Other objects relate directly to their names, such as this shelving unit that is designed in the shape of the Japanese ideogram for the word “longevity” or “congratulations.” I’ve included the Kanji or the word, and I can totally see how the shelves relate to it. As much as I would love to consider this unique concept “sculpture,” I’m afraid I’ve cataloged it as “furniture.”

Paul Cocksedge (born 1978, Britain), Pole Light, 2008. Acrylic, LEDs, and concrete base, 68 13/16" x 7 7/8" (174.9 x 20 cm). The Museum of Modern Art, New York. © 2015 Paul Cocksedge. (MOMA-D1212)

This has to be one of my “favorite new things.” I could just see this lamp in so many places in an apartment (well, maybe not on my drawing board or over my easel). It’s so elegant and yet apparently functional, although I’m not sure how bright the light gets. Even if it is a soft glow, this would be a really neat lighted sculpture to have in a dark room. According to their website, “The Paul Cocksedge Studio, founded in 2004 in London, is a design studio that emphasizes innovative design supported by research into the limits of technology, materials and manufacturing processes.” I think it’s really interesting that they design everyday objects with a long side eye to what must be a conventional wisdom about lamp design, in favor of an aesthetic.

Correlations to Davis Programs:  Explorations in Art Grade 1: 6.35; Explorations in Art Grade 2: 6.35-36 studio; Explorations in Art Grade 3: 6.35, 6.35-36 studio, 6.Connections; Explorations in Art Grade 6: 4.23-24 studio; A Community Connection: 5.2, 2.6; A Personal Journey: 3.1, 3.4; A Global Pursuit: 5.6; The Visual Experience: 10.6, 12.4; Discovering Art History: 2.2

Friday, November 6, 2015

Revival Curiosities

I once was a teaching assistant in a furniture history course in grad school, and have subsequently loved historic furniture and design. One of the mantras we chanted about the history of furniture was that, theoretically, furniture evolves around the human body and the way people are living at the time. I could cite numerous periods in furniture history where I question just how certain styles fit into this idea, but, I’m pretty certain the 1800s saw some of the most over-the-top furniture styles that not only defy practicality, but, well, you’ll see in the following examples. Keyword for the 1800s: REVIVAL STYLES 

Daniel Pabst (1826–1910, US, born Germany), Side chair, ca. 1880. Ebonized cherry and silk (newer) upholstery, 37 1/8" x 21 3/4" x 19" (94.3 x 55.2 x 48.3 cm). © Brooklyn Museum. (BMA-5400)
As you know, a key stylistic trend in architecture and decorative arts during the 1800s in Europe and the US—I don’t call it the “Victorian” period because she was only queen in Britain—was the “revival” of past styles going all the way back to ancient Egyptian. In America, the multitude of revival styles appealed to patrons because it afforded them the belief that they were just as cultured as their European counterparts. What better way to show it off than by having a room full of knock-offs from different periods of the past?

Daniel Pabst was a master cabinetmaker from Germany who hit it big in Philadelphia after immigrating there in 1849. He established a thriving furniture business there, and did much collaboration with the brilliant architect, interior designer, and furniture designer Frank Furness (1839–1912). Furness’s architecture is renowned for its quirky combination of different period styles, and the unusual grouping of forms in the over 600 buildings he designed.

Similarly, Pabst had unique interpretations of historical periods. This chair, for example is variously dubbed Gothic Revival, Romanesque Revival, or Renaissance Revival. Honestly, I can’t really see any of those periods in this, but maybe closest to Gothic with the pointed “tracery” carving. The ninety-degree angle of the seat and what little back there is doesn’t seem like it would be comfortable, nor does the scroll-like chair rail on the top of the back. And really, I don’t know what influenced the feet. Is that Pabst’s version of a Gothic ball-and-claw foot? 

Alexander Roux (1813–1898, US, born France), Side board, ca. 1855. Black walnut, 49” x 49" x 24" (124.5 x124.5 x 61 cm). © Brooklyn Museum. (BMA-5381)
While I’ll admit that there are many period styles that I feel should never have been touched by 1800s furniture designers, Mannerism Revival is probably the most appalling (with Palladian Revival a really close second). These two styles branched off from the Baroque Revival style, both of which revived the “grandeur” of the 1600s. What the Mannerism and Palladian strains of the Baroque Revival achieved was to make the word “overblown” seem mild to the grotesque decoration favored in this furniture.

Alexander Roux was not even in France during the Second Empire (1852–1872, the reign of Napoleon III 1808–1873), but he sure dug into the Baroque Revival style when it hit the US. He immigrated to the US in the 1830s and opened a studio in New York by 1837. He was a master cabinetmaker, and by the 1850s was employing 120 people and exploiting new industrial techniques for making furniture, such as steam-powered saws. What is amazing about this piece is the amount of actual carving. The sculpture of this sideboard is more compelling visually than the piece’s intended use.

While Roux supposedly specialized in Rococo Revival—which was BIG in the 1850s and 1860s—this side board just doesn’t look anything like Rococo to me. Like many of the revival styles, designers chose bits and pieces of past styles, often mixing periods in one piece. It has all the exuberant decoration of the Baroque substyles. I really don’t know how comfortable I’d be eating in a dining room with those two dogs staring at me, or the dead hare hanging from the carved headboard. The bust of the rabbit between the two hunting dogs is a nice touch, though. 

British, Three-way chair / sofa, ca. 1850. Wood, fabric, metal, 25" x 50 15/16" x 50 15/16" (63.5 x 129.5 x 129.5 cm). © Brooklyn Museum. (BMA-5267)
For those of you who remember it, the Addams Family TV show from the 1960s featured one of these curly-cue chair/sofas. This type of furniture would not fit in just any apartment. Such pieces were meant for the halls of museums, reception rooms in large houses, and conservatories. I’ve heard such a piece called a “peekaboo chair,” the idea being that romantic conversation can be carried on discreetly with railings between the individuals. While the piece has elegant curves and is padded everywhere—a big feature of 1800s furniture, the more the better—it is not really a practical piece except in a public space, or for wealthy people with a big house who have lots of parties. It certainly would not be practical in a man cave.

This piece is executed in a more tasteful rendition of the Rococo Revival style than the Roux piece, although the only Rococo elements I can discern are the cabriole legs terminating in the arms. An interesting feature of this piece is how low to the ground it is. Many chairs and sofas of the 1850s and 1860s were built low, and often without arms to accommodate the skirts of women at the time which featured massive hoops and petticoats underneath (the crinoline). With short legs on the furniture, a woman could sit discreetly without the hoop tipping up to reveal her ankles (they were considered naughty at the time). 

Warren E. Thomas (1808–?, US, designer), Centripetal Spring Chair, ca. 1849–1858. Cast-iron, wood, modern upholstery, original tassle fringe, 34 1/4" x 23 1/2" x 28 1/4" (87 x 59.7 x 71.8 cm). © Brooklyn Museum. (BMA-3500)
The Rococo Revival style had many uses, including zesting up office furniture. Believe it or not, this is often considered the forerunner of the modern office chair. “Centripetal” is the opposite of centrifugal, and I don’t really understand how that applies to this chair. It has an interesting parallel to architecture in that the frame is cast iron, a material that, at the same time, was being used in building construction, sometimes whole facades. The industrial design of the chair was downplayed by the froufrou Rococo overstuffed upholstery and the tasseled trimming (“passementerie”) along the seat that hid the C-springs that allowed tilting in four directions.

The Centripetal Office Chair was designed by an inventor and manufactured by the American Chair Company of Troy, NY. The chair was exhibited at the Great Exhibition in London’s Crystal Palace (another cast iron masterpiece of building) in 1851. However, the chair never really took off outside the US. It was considered too luxurious for office workers. The chair had all the features of modern office chairs excepting an adjustable back. It swivels in four directions, rotates 360 degrees, and has casters for easy movement.  

Ford Madox Brown (1821–1893, Britain, designer), Sussex Corner Chair, ca. 1865. Ebonized oak and rush, 27 3/4" x 22" x 22" (70.5 x 55.9 x 55.9 cm). © The Museum of Modern Art, New York. (MOMA-D0426)
In many ways, furniture revival styles were often a reaction to mass-production and the industrialization of furniture production. The most aggressive reaction to mass-production was the Arts and Crafts Movement that grew in Britain in the mid-1800s. It was spearheaded by a group of artists who had a romantic vision of the Middle Ages, and a romantic notion about living surrounded by hand-crafted furniture.  Some of the artists associated with this movement were painters who had formed a group in 1848 called the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, believing that the greatest period in painting was the Renaissance before the High Renaissance.

Ford Madox Brown was a member of the Pre-Raphaelites, and a co-founder of Morris, Marshall, Faulkner and Company in 1861, the beginning of William Morris and Company. Morris and Company spearheaded the Arts and Crafts Movement in designing furniture, stained glass, wallpaper, and tapestries in the Medieval taste. Brown designed stained glass and furniture. He is credited with “discovering” a “simple country chair” in Sussex that became the basis of his designing furniture for Morris’s company. For the Medieval lovers, the Sussex chair summed up the simplicity and utilitarian nature of Medieval furniture, even though the only furniture most people had in the Middle Ages were chests or benches. Madox Brown is said to have designed eight variations on the Sussex chair.

Sussex furniture was valued for being light and moveable. I can see the corner chair being convenient in a crowded ballroom, but I’m not sure how I would sit in it to read a book or watch TV? 

François-Rupert Carabin (1862–1921 France), Bookcase, ca. 1889–1890. Walnut and iron, 9'8" x 6'8" (300 x 210 cm). Private Collection, Paris. © Davis Art Images. (8S-27886)
Yes, I saved the best (worst?) for last. Did you ever wonder where the line between sculpture and furniture is? Well, I think this artist’s work definitely blurs the distinctions. Carabin was an accomplished sculptor, photographer, and designer of medals and ceramics. He is generally considered a product of Art Nouveau, though to me the connections with Art Nouveau are tenuous. His work represents, I guess, the Art Nouveau emphasis on unconventional, realistic depictions of nature?

Interestingly, Carabin became famous after he spent a year carving this piece for a wealthy businessman. Although Carabin was a co-founder of the Society of Independent Artists, this piece was not accepted in one of their exhibitions because it was not considered sculpture. Art critic Gustave Geoffroy (1855–1926) decried the judgment saying that Carabin’s piece was part of a “new kind” of art. Well, whatever one considers it—furniture or sculpture—it isn’t a piece I’d want in my apartment, especially with “Truth,” “Wisdom,” and “Contemplation” lolling around on the top!

Correlations to Davis Programs: Explorations in Art Grade 1: 6.35; Explorations in Art Grade 2: 6.Studio 35-36; Explorations in Art Grade 3: 6 4.Studio 23-24; A Community Connection: 5.2; A Personal Journey: 3.1, 3.4; Beginning Sculpture: 5; The Visual Experience: 12.4; Discovering Art History: 2.2

Friday, October 30, 2015

The Beauty of Wayō Shodō

Unknown Artist, Japan, Page containing a calligraphy of a poem by Lady Ise (875–938 CE), from a portfolio Anthology of Thirty-Six Poets,” 1108–1112. Ink, silver ink, and ground mica-infused white ink on paper, mounted in 1929 as a hanging scroll, 8" x 6 1/4" (20.3 x 15.9 cm). © Philadelphia Museum of Art. (PMA-2816A)

Did you known that the Japanese did not have a written language up until the 400s CE? I find cursive Japanese so incredibly beautiful. The story behind its development is very interesting, and I bet you can’t take your eyes off of this page from a collection of poems! The chrysanthemum design is a woodblock print in white ink infused with ground mica, which sparkles (you can’t really make that out in a photograph). So sumptuous!

In 784 CE the Japanese emperor Kammu (737–806 CE) moved the capital from Nara to Kyoto in order to escape the constant interference of the Buddhist monks in Nara, and establish a strong centralized government based on Chinese models. Within 100 years of the move, official embassies to China ceased because of political turmoil there. Without the dominance of Chinese artistic models, Japanese culture thrived in the wealthy imperial court in Kyoto, ushering in a period of literary, artistic, and architectural flourishing. The dedicated patronage of aristocrats in the court encouraged the development of indigenous religious and nascent secular art.
The Heian period was also a period that saw a rise of provincial military clans organized in a feudal system. These clans continually challenged the emperor’s power and insisted that Japan reject the overwhelming amount of Chinese influence on Japanese culture. The first important novel in world literature, the "Tale of Genji" by Murasaki Shikibu, appeared during the Heian era. Despite constant political turmoil during the Heian Period, it is considered the period during which the foundational classics of Japanese painting, literature, and sculpture were produced.
From the 400s to 700s CE, the Japanese began to incorporate Chinese characters into a written language. Chinese calligraphy at that time was already very advanced. Initially, Japanese calligraphy was called "karayō shodō" or "Tang (dynasty) style." The oldest extant Japanese script is dated 615 CE, a commentary of the Lotus Sutra composed in standard Chinese script. Although the imperial court in Kyoto encouraged the use of Chinese characters in literature and official documents, by the end of the Heian period, the "wayō shodō"— Japanese style—was already developing.
The period of the late 800s through the 900s is sometimes called the era of the Three Brushes, named for three prominent calligraphers who helped shape the Japanese style. Of the three, the contributions of Ono no Kichikaze (894–966) are considered the most important, and he is thought to be the first person to form a truly unique Japanese style. The Japanese cursive style was a natural result of the increasing need of artistic expression in calligraphy that would accompany gestural landscape paintings in poems. Like the Chinese painters of landscapes, landscape artists modeled their brush strokes on calligraphy brush strokes.
The script of this poem is the "wayō shadō," a style developed at the imperial court. The poem by a woman of the court is thought to have been commissioned for the sixtieth birthday of the Emperor Shirakawa (1053–1129) in 1112. This poem leaf was separated from a collection of some 190 pages of poems, written on paper that was sumptuously decorated with woodblock printed chrysanthemum flowers in white ink made of shimmering ground mica. Additionally, there are pages with pine branches, bell flowers, maple leaves, and birds stenciled in silver leaf. The anthology of poems was executed by twenty of the leading calligraphers of the period. Such luxurious collections of writings are typical of the aesthetic heights that the Heian period art reached.

Two other examples of the Japanese cursive style of calligraphy:

Ogata Gekko (1859–1920), Index from the portfolio Women’s Customs and Manners, 1897. Color woodcut on paper, 14" x 9 15/16" (35.6 x 25.2 cm). © Brooklyn Museum. (BMA-2373).

Hashimoto Dokuzan (1868-1939), Calligraphy of Freely Having Nothing is my Poem. Ink on paper, hanging scroll, 53 5/8" x 13 1/8" (136.2 x 33.3 cm). © Philadelphia Museum of Art. (PMA-4664)

This website features profiles of many prominent Japanese calligraphers through history:

Correlations to Davis programs: Explorations in Art Grade 2: 4.24; Explorations in Art Grade 3: 3.18; Explorations in Art Grade 5: 5.26; Explorations in Art Grade 6: 5.27; A Global Pursuit: 7.5; A Personal Journey: 4.2; Discovering Art History: 4.4; Exploring Visual Design: 1; The Visual Experience: 3.4, 13.5

Monday, October 19, 2015

Stories of Ruler Portraits

Since (ugh) election time coming around once again, let’s look at some interesting portraits of people who were never elected (except for the last one). There are always interesting tidbits about these sovereigns from the past. POP QUIZ: What do the first and last guys have in common? (answer at end) 

Ancient Egypt, Ptolemy II (309–246 BCE), between 285 and 246 BCE. Limestone, from Benha il-Assel, 17 15/16" x 13 15/16" x 8 1/4" (45.5 x 35.5 x 21 cm). © Brooklyn Museum. (BMA-4903)

Ptolemy II was the son of the dynasty’s founder, Ptolemy Soter (ca. 367–ca. 283 BCE). Aside from the questionable success of military endeavors to expand Greek Egypt’s power in the eastern Mediterranean, he was a good diplomat and established a strong relationship with Egyptians, as well as a thriving economy, allowing Egypt autonomy from Greece. He actively encouraged the Egyptian religion and artistic conventions, while also following those of the Greeks. While Egyptian pharaohs had always been considered gods themselves, he established the cult of the “brother god,” a practice that would have profound influence on the cult of the emperor in the Roman Empire. 

Ancient Peru, Moche Culture, Portrait Head Vessel, 400–600 CE. Earthenware, 13" x 8 1/4" x 7" (33 x 21 x 18 cm). © Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. (MFH-628)

The Moche culture flourished between 100 BCE and 750 CE on a narrow desert plain between the Pacific and the Andes mountains in northern Peru. The culture is probably most famous for the effigy vessels found in the tombs of the ruling class. The Moche had a stratified society in which the rulers also acted as religious leaders. Like many Mesoamerican and South American cultures, the Moche cities were dominated by central palace/civic worship complexes from which governmental and religious activities were overseen. It is tempting to look at these effigy vessels as portraits of the deceased, but their purpose and inspiration are unknown. The elaborate headdress of this male becomes what is known as a “stirrup” handle. 

Attributed to Yan Liben (ca. 600–673 CE, China), Emperor Wu of Jin (236–290 CE) and Emperor Zhaoli of Shu (162–223 CE), section of the handscroll The Thirteen Emperors, ink and color on silk, height: 20 3/16" (51.3 cm"), overall length: 17' 42" (531 cm). © MFA, Boston. (MFAB-646B)

These figures come from the famous “Thirteen Emperors” handscroll. It was painted during the Tang Dynasty (618–907 CE), an early renaissance of Chinese culture.  The long period of domination of northern China by foreigners that engendered the Six Dynasties Period (220–589 CE), led to a yearning by the Chinese to reunite the country and reestablish the glorious culture that had flourished during the Han Dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE). The short-lived Sui dynasty (589–618 CE) failed to do what the Tang dynasty succeeded in doing in the early 600s. The founder of the Tang dynasty, who had much northern blood, successfully managed to control the "barbarian" cultures in the north and west. This reopened the trade routes to the west, and left China once again open to an abundance of artistic wealth and innovation. This scroll depicts illustrious emperors of the Six Dynasties and Han periods. 

Edo People, Nigeria, Head of an Oba, 1575–1650. Bronze, 9 3/4" x 7 1/2" x 7 3/4" (24.76 x 19.05 x 19.68 cm). © Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY. (AK-36)

The Edo culture of Nigeria created one of the many fabulous kingdoms of pre-colonial Africa. The Benin Kingdom began to flourish during the late 1400s and lasted until stamped out by the British in the 1800s. They excelled in lost-wax cast metal sculpture of bronze and brass. The Benin Kingdom was a monarchy in which the oba (king) ruled over subsidiary regional chiefs/vassals. After the death of the oba/king, the successor was expected to honor the deceased with the creation of a commemorative head. Heads such as this were placed upon an altar in the palace. Not only did they commemorate the past leader, but they acted as a constant guiding presence of the deceased oba. In Edo culture, the head was considered the center of a person's intelligence, wisdom, authority, and family leadership. One of the honorific names for the oba is "Great Head." 

India, Mughal Dynasty, The Emperor Aurangzeb (1618–1707) on Horseback, 1690–1710. Ink and color on paper, 12" x 8 3/4" (30.5 x 22.3 cm). © Cleveland Museum of Art. (CL-128)

In 1526 the Turk/Mongol leader Babur (1483–1530) founded the Mughal Empire when he invaded and conquered northern India (including present-day Pakistan). Under Babur’s successors, especially the emperor Akbar (1542–1607), the empire grew to encompass three-quarters of the Indian subcontinent. The Mughal emperors tolerated the other major faiths of India, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikh. The exception was Aurangzeb (1618–1707), who tried to abolish the Sikh sect. Aurangzeb (died 1707), a conservative Muslim, disapproved of music and art, and as a result the arts declined during his reign. This is likely a posthumous portrayal of the emperor. Halos such as this were not only meant to signify sainted figures of Islam, but also revered rulers. 

Robert J. Bingham (1824–1910, Britain), Maximilian (1832–1867), Emperor of Mexico, 1864–1867. Albumen silver print on paper mounted on cardstock, 3 1/2" x 2 1/4" (9 x 5.7 cm). © The Museum of Modern Art, New York. (MOMA-P3439)
This poor slob with the deer-in-the-headlights look—the brother of the emperor of the Austro-Hungarian Empire—was prevailed upon by the French in 1863 to become emperor of Mexico, creating a French foothold in the Western Hemisphere. The French invaded Mexico in 1862 in order to force the country to repay its debts to France. Napoleon III (1808–1873), the French ruler, wanted a European ruling Mexico to establish stability after the turmoil of civil war there (after 1855). Maximilian tried unsuccessfully to bring the opposing factions to agreement, angering conservatives with some liberal reforms. After the French withdrew their troops in 1865, Maximilian’s regime quickly collapsed under liberal forces led by reformer Benito Juarez (died 1872). He was captured and executed in 1867. 

Ogé (1861–1936, France), President Kruger of Transvaal Offering Pills to Queen Victoria – Pills Dum Dum, 1900. Color metal relief print on paper, 43 9/16" x 29 1/2" (110.8 x 74.9 cm). © Philadelphia Museum  of Art. (PMA-3930)

Throughout history, the French have always enjoyed seeing the British have troubles, and vice versa. So, it is not surprising that a French artist drew this cartoon of Britain’s Queen Victoria (1819–1901) during the stupid Second Boer War (1899–1902). That was basically a war fought between Britain and the Dutch colonists for land and control of all of southern Africa, and the rich gold mining industry.  The result of the war was the formation of the Union of South Africa. This cartoon shows the Boer president Paul Kruger offering a sick Queen Victoria Dum Dum pills, a remedy for colds. “Dum dum” was also slang for bullets, hence the rifle he’s carrying. 

Donald Moffett (born 1955, US), He Kills Me, 1987. Color offset lithograph on paper, 23 3/8" x 37 3/8" (59.5 x 95 cm). The Museum of Modern Art, New York. © 2015 Donald Moffett. (MOMA-P3073)

Answer to POP QUIZ: Ptolemy and Reagan are both deified rulers!

Ronald Reagan’s (1911–2004) presidency launched the “Reagan Revolution,” which was basically an anti-big-government movement that has affected American politics to the present day. His presidency was also known for the period that witnessed the collapse of Communism as a viable governmental form in Russia and Eastern Europe, in part because of Reagan’s peace-through-strength stance that led ultimately to better relations with Russia and the end of the Cold War. This artist parodies one of the low points of Reagan’s administration when he unintentionally told a stupid joke over the air before his weekly radio broadcast in 1984 claiming that he had outlawed Russia forever and would start “bombing in five minutes.” Some politicians today still hark back to the “Reagan Revolution” as if it were a religion.

Tuesday, October 13, 2015

A Beautiful Idea…and Building

Louis Bourgeois (1856–1930, US, born Canada), Baha’I Temple of Worship, 1921–1931, Wilmette, IL. Photo © 2015 Davis Art Images. (8S-14101)

Once, while on a plane landing at O’Hare when I lived in Chicago, the sun was going down and we flew in low over this spectacular building. I’ll never forget that sight. And, yes, it was in winter with snow on the ground.

The tenets of the Baha’i faith are pretty straightforward, and immensely progressive. The Baha'i faith resulted from a revelation to the Shiite Iranian Mirza Husayn-Ali (1817–1892), subsequently known as Baha'u'llah (The Glory of God). Baha'u'llah was made to understand that all religions are centered on the same supreme deity, meaning that all world religions are monotheistic, interpreted by various persons chosen as prophets. The three core principles of the faith are: the unity of God, the unity of all religions, and the unity of humanity. The Baha'i Temple in Wilmette, Illinois, was the first Baha'i place of worship constructed in the United States.
The architect of the Baha'i Temple ("The Temple of Light"), converted to the Baha'i faith in 1906 in New York. Born in Saint-Célestin de Nicolet, Québec, he had shown a talent for drawing by the age of 8. Interested in architecture, he apprenticed in a church contractor's office, designing his first church in 1892. He also studied as an apprentice to a sculptor, going to Paris, where he was surrounded by great sculpture from the Gothic through the Neoclassical periods. What enthralled him most, however, was the architecture of Paris. He subsequently traveled to Italy, Greece, and Egypt to absorb many different styles of architecture.

In 1886 Bourgeois was in Chicago and worked with Louis Sullivan (1856–1924), the pioneer of American skyscrapers. A key feature of Sullivan's architecture was exterior decoration that was strongly influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement, one that borrowed decorative motifs liberally from Medieval, Islamic, and Asian sources. The commission for the Baha'i Temple was proposed in 1909 but not decided in favor of Bourgeois until 1920. 

The Baha'i Temple has a silhouette similar to that of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, and, like that building, is characterized by a merging of Western and Islamic styles. The octagonal dome and drum are decorated in a combination of Gothic tracery and Islamic arabesque decoration that encloses a centralized worship space much like the centrally-planned Byzantine churches. Some of the curving and undulating elements of the façade may refer to Art Nouveau. The peers separating the eight sides of the building bear the names of the major prophets of all world religions.

Baha’I Temple of Worship, Entrance. Photo © 2015 Davis Art Images. (8S-14102) 

The main entrance door bears a scalloped, horseshoe arch similar to those seen at the Alhambra in Granada, Spain, and the Great Mosque in Cordobá.

Correlations to Davis programs:  Explorations in Art 1 1.1; Explorations in Art 2 6.31, 6.33; Explorations in Art 3 4.20; Explorations in Art 4 3.16, 3.18; Explorations in Art 5 2.12; Explorations in Art 6 4.19, 4.20; A Community Connection 7.4; Exploring Visual Design 1, 7, 8; The Visual Experience 11.4, 16.6; Discovering Art History 16.1